Sleep apnoea is a disorder in which a patient experiences one or more pauses in breathing or shallow breaths while they sleep. Sleep apnoea is usually a chronic disorder.
Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) is characterised by repetitive episodes of complete or partial upper airway obstruction during sleep, usually due to a narrow, collapsible airway. Patients with OSA continue respiratory efforts despite the airway being obstructed.
Central Sleep Apnoea (CSA) is characterised by repetitive episodes of shallow or absent breathing, resulting from temporary loss of respiratory effort rather than obstruction of the airway.
Symptoms of sleep apnoea include snoring, gasping or choking, restless sleep, early morning headaches, fatigue, waking feeling tired and unrefreshed regardless of amount of time slept, forgetfulness, depression, irritability, sexual dysfunction, motor vehicle accidents, and job related accidents.
Comorbidities of sleep apnoea include hypertension, obesity, congestive heart failure, T2 diabetes and stroke.